UPENE-’12

A few years ago, I first heard about an Unofficial Propeller Expo which was to be held a few hours drive away from my hometown.  I had never heard about the Propeller, which turned out to be a souped-up microcontroller, but the idea of a get-together to discuss electronic things grabbed my attention.  Well, I decided that I was going to go to this thing; it was great!

The Propeller microcontroller is an 8-core (yes, there are a full 8 computers in that chip) controller which runs at 80MHz!  This is some pretty impressive stuff to a guy who got started with a 1950’s mainframe, that took up a large room and I actually troubleshot and repaired flip-flops and individual gates.  I had some experience with some of the smaller AVRs and with the BASIC Stamp I (turns out that the Propeller is manufactured by Parallax, the same people who created the BS-I.)

So, anyway, while surfing for material about my favorite subject, I ran across the Propeller Forum (http://forums.parallax.com/forum.php) and a post by Jeff (Old Bit Collector.)  He was talking about how he started the expo as a way for a few people to get together to discuss cool things that they had done with the Propeller.  After posting a notice for people near his home town in Ohio, the thing kinda got away from him and he had nearly a hundred people show up!  I came in a short time before the second Unofficial Propeller Expo in Ohio and was able to make it – I have not missed one (at least in Ohio) since then – and I actually made it to Chicago once (hope to make the Chicago expos more in the future.)

A picture of myself and my son (green shirt) sitting at our table at the Propeller Expo.

Prior to going to this expo, I decided that I needed to get to know about the Propeller, so I ordered one and read up on it.  I perused the forums and read everything that I could find about that chip.  At the expo, I actually got one of the Propeller Protoboard development systems (http://www.parallax.com/Store/Microcontrollers/PropellerDevelopmentBoards/tabid/514/CategoryID/73/List/0/SortField/0/catpageindex/2/Level/a/ProductID/423/Default.aspx) and got a chance to play with it – I was right, this is a really cool product.  Since then, I have gotten several more Propeller Products, taught an Intro course at one of the Expos and have developed a few products for the Prop.  I am now finishing up an Intro Textbook and parts kit, which I hope to take with me to sell at the expo.

If you live near Ohio and are able to attend (http://forums.parallax.com/showthread.php?141203-NE-PROPELLERHEADS-UPENE-August-25th-2012-REGISTRATION-OPEN), you will not regret it.  There are also annual UPEs in the Chicago area and in Rocklin, California, the home of Parallax.  It also looks like some expos may be starting up in Australia, Europe and maybe Japan (or maybe elsewhere in Asia.)

Hope to see you there.

(By the way – more pictures will be coming soon)

The Ultimate RISC Gets Hardware

(In a nasal, Andy-Rooneyish tone) “Have you ever noticed how some things just stay new?”

Well, Prof. Jones’ paper is like that.  It seems that every time I look at the paper, I see something new.  Take for instance figure 2, the block diagram: I have been going over that paper on-and-off for a few years.  Even so, I came up with the block diagram that I posted earlier.  Hmmm, it seems that when I took another look at figure 2, I just tried fitting some 74LS00 series chips in place; what do you know?  They fit!  I looked at the buffer (the triangle pointing up, on the right side of the diagram) and thought that it could be a simple tri-state buffer; perhaps a couple/few 74LS241 Octal 3-State Drivers?

Next, I looked to the left a bit and noticed that the rectangle right next to the driver was really a latch, such as the 74LS373 or ‘374 (now what is the difference between those again?  Oh yeah, one is edge triggered and the other is level triggered.)  Whoa, those latches in Prof. Jones’ figure 2 look mighty close to these chips.  In fact, with the exception of the triggers being inverted from Prof. Jones’ design, and the fact that the address latch is not buffered (just keep the output enabled for that one), those chips will work admirably.

After looking through my old, handy-dandy 7400 TTL list (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_7400_series_integrated_circuits), and doing a couple more replacements, I came up with this:

Notice that, as I’ve mentioned, the PC, ADDR and TEMP latches are inverted from Prof. Jones’ description.  This can be easily handled by simply inverting the bits in the sequencer for those signals.

Also, the address decoding for the PC Register is the small box in the lower-left corner.  It is simply a large AND gate looking for all the address bits to be high (the highest address) along with the write signal high.  This will latch the data on the data bus into the 74LS374 holding the PC Register.

The sequencer will be a simple 74LS188 ROM (or actually half of one) programmed with the data from figure 3 in Prof. Jones’ paper.  The address lines for this ROM will be tied to a 4-bit binary up counter (such as a 74LS161) clocked by the system clock.  The eight bits per address location will line up with the eight signals coming in on the left-side of figure 2.

Next up will be creating a schematic of each part of figure 2, and the 74LS188 ROM with the counter and clock.  I would like the clock to be variable, including down to single step, so that the operator can see each step as it is executed.

Also, January is the Winter Warmup for the Retrochallenge contest.  I will be entering again (didn’t do as well as I would have liked last summer), but am not sure what I will be doing for that.  Check out my RC blog at http://retrochallenge.granzeier.com.

Additionally, I recently purchased a few of the LaunchPads from Texas Instruments.  We will be going through an introduction to them in the next few weeks.

 

 

 

 

A Revelation!

Still working on getting the hang of this blogging stuff.  Just thought of something – guess what?  I don’t HAVE to stay on one project until it is completed.  (All right, you veteran bloggers, you can stop laughing now and get up off the floor; ok, so I can be slow on some things sometimes.)  As an engineer, you will rarely get the chance to work on a single project until completion, and so it will be with this blog too.

Anyway, I do have an update to the Ultimate RISC computer that Professor Jones described.  I started to write the emulation for the Parallax QuickStart board (http://www.parallax.com/Store/Microcontrollers/PropellerDevelopmentBoards/tabid/514/ProductID/748/List/0/Default.aspx?SortField=ProductName,ProductName) .  I really love this little board, and when I add Bean’s Propeller Embedded BASIC (PE-BASIC, http://forums.parallax.com/showthread.php?123678-PE-Basic-Version-0.16-July-11-2011&highlight=pe-basic) it feels kind of like the old small computers from the ’70s.

Well, back in the mid-70s, I wrote an emulator for Bell Labs’ CardIAC computer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CARDboard_Illustrative_Aid_to_Computation.)   This cardboard computer taught the user how computers work on a very basic level.  Because of the CardIAC, I was light years ahead in understanding machine (and thus assembly) language.  Then, back in the early-90s, I dusted it off and morphed it into a visual CPU simulator for a microprocessor course that I was teaching.  Once more, I was starting to work on it to morph it into this Move computer.  I wanted it to be in “kinda” hardware (the Propeller would output an address and read/write to an external memory or I/O device.

After getting a good start, I decided that I was really doing a “proof of concept” project with this.  I really want to do a complete H/W Move Computer, not just a hardware emulation.  So, I am going to re-do this project:  the first implementation will be a purely software version (written in something with a little more horsepower than PE-BASIC, sorry Bean, but an integer-only language without any string handling or other things, while great for an embedded control system, leaves a bit to be desired for this Move Computer.)

My second implementation will then be a simple 4-bit proof of concept done in SSL (Small-Scale Logic) and MSL (Medium-Scale Logic) ICs, such as the 74LS00 or maybe the 4000 family chips.  This will be followed by an actually usable 16-bit or more computer, again done in SSL and MSL.

Here is the block diagram for my Move Computer:

The Control unit will need to generate 8 signals:

Internal to CPU:

  • MAR_WR (Memory Address Register Write or Load)
  • MDR_WR (Memory Data Register Write or Load)
  • MDR_RD (Memory Data Register Read)
  • PCRADDR_RD (Program Count Register Address – hardwired to all 1s, I.E. FFFF)
  • CTRL_RESET (Reset the binary counter to the micro-instruction step)

And external to CPU

  • WR (Write – for Memory or I/O)
  • RD (Read – for Memory or I/O)
  • PCR_INCR (PCR Increment)

Reset:

All control signals go to 1
ACCU (Accumulator) = 0000
PCR (Program Count Register) = 0000

The microcode for the CPU will be pretty simple.  The processor will fetch the contents of the source location and then store it in the destination location.

Fetch the contents of the next Source memory location in the program into the MDR.

1)  PCRADDR_RD = 0 & MAR_WR = 0
2)  PCRADDR_RD = 1, MAR_WR = 1
3)  MAR_WR = 0
4)  MAR_WR = 1, PCR_INCR = 0
5)  PCR_INCR = 1, RD = 0
6)  MDR_WR = 0
7)  MDR_WR = 1
8)  RD = 1

Store the contents of the MDR into the next Destination memory location in the program.

1)  PCRADDR_RD = 0 & MAR_WR = 0
2)  PCRADDR_RD = 1, MAR_WR = 1
3)  MAR_WR = 0
4)  MAR_WR = 1, PCR_INCR = 0
5)  PCR_INCR = 1, MDR_RD = 0
6)  WR = 0
7)  WR = 1
8)  MDR_RD = 1

This looks like it will work, next I will test it in software.  If I stay with this microcode, you will notice that it takes exactly 16 steps.  I would not need the CTRL_Reset signal in that case, just running the sequencer clock beyond the 15(Decimal) or 1111b would start it over again without any need to reset the counter.

Well, that seems to be it for the initial design phase, I will implement it in software and present it in the next posting of this project (with other posts between these, of course.)

The Ultimate RISC

Having been working with computers since 1975, I have long wanted to build my own CPU.  In my playing research, I ran across a paper by Professor Douglas W. Jones of the University of Iowa (http://www.divms.uiowa.edu/~jones/arch/risc/).  This article really captured my imagination, and I have not been able to get it out of my mind.  This is, pretty much, the ultimate in simplified CPU design.

Professor Jones’ paper presents the design for a computer with only a single instruction.  At first, (having grown up watching the 8080 being trumped by the Z-80 and then Intel upping it’s own 8080 with the 8085 followed by the 8086 and so on…) my mind had a difficult time wrapping itself around a single instruction actually being useful.  Prof. Jones even discusses some real-world single-instruction computers at the end of his paper.

People who deal with logic know that any logic can be generated from only NAND gates.  Thus, a computer which can only perform a NAND operation should be able to emulate all other operations.  Likewise, it turns out, a computer which does nothing more than subtracting one number from another and then jumping to a new location can emulate all other operations.  Wikipedia discusses some of those computers in their article on One Instruction Set Computer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One_instruction_set_computer).

Prof. Jones presents another type of single instruction computer, the MOVE computer.  The only instruction available to this CPU is the MOVE command.  This does bring up a few difficulties such as: how does the CPU modify it’s program flow… How do you do logic or arithmetic functions, etc.

His paper covers all that pretty well.  After reading his paper, it started to strike me as being an insanely simple architecture.  I think that this is a good way for people to get into the design of a CPU.  My next project will be an implementation of this MOVE computer in hardware (probably just an MPU emulating the CPU to begin with.)

Why Study Engineering?

Let’s look at the foundation of engineering.  Why would we even want to study engineering?  To answer that, consider an old anecdote:

A doctor, an engineer and an attorney were having lunch and were enjoying a nice discussion with their lunch.  As often happens, the conversation drifted around to their careers and they started discussing who was in the oldest profession.

“If you will recall, the bible states that God took a rib out of Adam, and created Eve,” claimed the Doctor.  “Clearly, this is the work of a Surgeon, so my field is the oldest field.”

The engineer agreed, but pointed out that “prior to that, God took chaos and created the entire universe.  This is certainly the work of an Engineer, so there can be no doubt that Engineering predates the medical field, and is the oldest.”

“Not so fast,” commented the attorney.  “Who do you think created all that chaos in the first place?”

This little story, while humorous, misses by just a tad.  The attorney, while “admirably” defending his field, wasn’t quite right.  God did create order out of chaos, but the chaos was not created, it was the raw material, out of which God created the universe.  So, sorry to all the attorneys out there who thought that they were in the oldest profession; “it just ain’t so.”

In actuality, the field of engineering is really the oldest profession (no slight intended to all the mothers out there who claim title.)  So, to study engineering is really to study God!  And to think, you thought that engineering wasn’t all that glamorous a field, huh?  A wise student takes note of, and studies, the works of the more mature professionals in his field; so study how God has put things together, and learn all that you can about the greatest field in the world!

If you would like to know more about The First Engineer, I am going to put up a copy of His Instruction Manual in my store (http://zenstore.granzeier.com) – it should be there by tomorrow.  I am going to try to make it available for a very low price (free will be great, if I can swing it), in my store.

Stay tuned for more info about that and more great engineering information.